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奇談、信仰、傳統:從集體記憶到個人創作
​​Tales, Beliefs, and Traditions: From Collective Memory to Personal Creation
by 陳小雀 Lucía Hsiao-Chuan Chen

每個文明、族群、地區、國家均有其神話傳說,並發展成宗教信仰、文化傳統。藉用神話大師坎伯(Joseph Campbell)的理論:「神話是公開的夢,夢是私人的神話。」神話傳說、鄉野奇聞、鬼魅怪談均可歸類為「神話」,既是公開的夢,也是「集體記憶」,代代相傳,甚至隨時代變遷而賦予不同的新意,堪稱眾人的集體創作。

​​Every civilization, ethnic group, area, country has its own myths and tales, which then developed and became religions or beliefs, and cultures and traditions. Referring to Joseph Campbell’s mythology theory: “the myth is the public dream and the dream is the private myth.” Myth includes tales, folklores, and ghost stories, it can be a public dream and collective memory as well, passing around from one generation to the next, and it is even given new identification in different times, which can be seen as the collective memory.

每則神話皆蘊藏寓意,有些神話探源文化發展,有些神鬼奇談與慎終追遠息息相關,有些驚悚的鬼魅怪談則有警世意味。不論是文化探源、抑或勸世為善,神話無不引人入勝。

神話是文學之始,也是藝術創作的靈感,本文為作者陳小雀、臺灣藝術家Candy Bird、智利藝術家馬卡蓮娜的對談紀錄(收聽Podcast),三位與談人皆著重在奇聞軼事,將口耳相傳的「集體記憶」以圖像表現,昇華為街頭創作或公共藝術。

智利藝術家阿爾梅擅長大型壁畫,例如,他為玻利維亞拉巴斯墓園所作的壁畫《骷髏節》(Ñatita en flor),即以前哥倫布文明的傳統為藍本,闡釋拉美人的生死觀;另外,他的作品《人與人之間的覺醒》(Awake between Us)以「眼睛」為題,象徵智慧、洞燭一切、啟蒙心靈,而眼神代表傳遞訊息,也意味著人與人、國與國之間的連結。

臺灣藝術家張碩尹以寶藏巖田野傳奇「潭中鬼哭」為藍本,創作出壁畫《佛求女、槓桿街與石壁潭》,以圖像為傳奇留下紀錄。

陳小雀以拉美研究者的視角,以「墨西哥亡靈節」的生死意象,回應阿爾梅的《骷髏節》壁畫;以《紋身女傳奇》(La Tatuana)、《暗夜哭泣的女人》(La Llorona),呼應張碩尹的創作。

作者簡介
陳小雀 Lucía Hsiao-Chuan Chen

墨西哥國立自治大學文哲學院拉丁美洲研究博士,專研拉美文學與文化,曾任淡江大學外國語文學院院長,現任淡江大學國際暨兩岸事務處國際長、淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所教授。學術工作之餘,不時探訪拉美,足跡遍及拉美各國。《自由時報電子報》「魔幻拉美專欄」作家,著有《加勒比海的古巴:雪茄與蔗糖的革命之歌》、《加勒比海諸國史:海盜與冒險者的天堂》、《魔幻古巴》、《美洲古文明的時光膠囊》、《魔幻拉美:動盪中的華麗身影》、《魔幻拉美:平凡中的絢麗生命》。

Ms. Lucía Hsiao-Chuan Chen is a PhD in Latin American Studies from the Faculty of Philosophy and Literature of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, specialized in Latin American literature and culture. She was the Dean of the School of Foreign Languages and Literature of Tamkang University and currently is the Dean of the Office of International and Cross-Strait Affairs Office and the professor of the Latin American Institute of Tamkang University. Apart from academic works, she visits Latin America from time to time, and travels all over Latin America. She writes the Magic Latin America column for the Liberty Times Net and her publications are: Cuba, Paradise of Caribbean Sea, Caribbean Sea, Magic Cuba, Time Capsule of The Ancient American Civilizations, Magic Latin America I and Magic Latin America II.

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